"Household Survey on India’s Citizen Environment & Consumer Economy" (ICE 360° Survey, 2016)

 

PRICE has completed its latest ICE 360o survey in August, 2016. This survey is larger is scope and size, covering 300,000+ households through a household listing exercise, followed by a more detailed survey of 60,360 households. Geographically, the sample has been drawn from across 216 districts, 1217 villages and 487 towns spread across 25 major states.  The survey is designed to be multi-dimensional and goes beyond incomes and savings. It also takes a deeper look at the economic and social well-being of Indian households, provides normative measures of social, political and financial inclusion, degree of access to public goods and infrastructure and welfare measures of the government. Special feature of the survey is that it consists of a panel of 12,000 households which are common in both ICE 360o Survey, 2014 and ICE 360o Survey, 2016, which will facilitate to take a longitudinal view of how the Indian consumption landscape has evolved since the new government came to power.

 

Please scroll down below to read the details about the ICE 360o survey, 2016 or download the full content about the survey along with data validation and reliability estimates by clicking here ACP_PDF 2_file_document

 

Objectives

  • To put more and more reliable and insightful people-level information into the public domain that helps in better policy formulation, regulatory response and business strategy development.

  • Play a leading role in shining the light on issues that are unknown or blind spots.

  • To bring the “human face” or people-centricity into India’s public policy debate and discourse, which today is mostly focused on outlays not outcomes and on macro-economic or supply side variables.

  • To make both ECONOMIC and SOCIAL well-being of Indian citizens the end goal of policy and business by encouraging government and corporate India to take note of people level data.

  • To synchronise Indian Citizen engagement with public policy.

 

The following themes will be explored by the survey: 

 

Household Characteristics: Type of dwelling unit and availability and access to basic amenities, ownership of durables, intention to purchase in near future, livelihood linked seasonal migration trends, remittance behaviour etc.

 

Social and Political Inclusion: Social discrimination, feeling of security within neighbourhood,  areas of concern, food security, participation in social activities and political participation, membership in trade bodies, presence and usage of in trade and social networks etc.

 

Access to welfare: Awareness of and participation in flagship government programs, method use to  access information on current trade/occupation and schemes and benefits, degree of dependency on PDS, life cover, employment guarantee, etc.

 

Income and consumption: Volume of earned and unearned income in households from all sources, itemised consumption expenditure covering food and non-food items, utilities, debt servicing, non-routine expenses, etc.

 

Debt Situation of Households: Penetration of formal debt, purpose of debt (including consumption, production, for business expansion/seed capital), preferred source of credit, future intention and purpose for taking loan from formal and informal sources, current debt servicing costs, etc.

 

Financial Optimism: Perception about stability in major source of household income, level of satisfaction regarding financial situation of household, perceived economic class, expected change in household’s economic situation in next 3 years, etc.

 

Saving and Investment Behaviour: Cross market savings portfolios, market penetration (household) of broad investment modes, share of wallet – percentage share of total savings/investments by instruments, short and long term savings motivations, savings/investment plans for 2016-17, retirement outlook, remittances, awareness, understanding, and trust in financial instruments linked to capital markets etc.

 
Labour Market

Labour market participation: Occupations of all members, sector of employment, job security and nature of contracting, social security and labour rights, disguised employment, etc.

 

Financial inclusion measure: Access to formal finance, sourcing of debt by purpose, debt servicing costs, bank account ownership, life insurance coverage, eligibility for accessing formal loan (proof of address, identity proof, availability of collateral for mortgage - real estate, gold, investments), awareness of prospect of leveraging owned assets for credit from FIs, etc.

 

Digital connectivity: Penetration of smart phones, degree of comfort with using VAS, access to internet and usage of internet to perform basic functions.

 
Public Infrastructure

Access to public infrastructure: Availability and ease of access to public infrastructure, including health, education, judiciary, markets, essential commodities etc.

 

Citizen's Report Card: Public opinion on direction of change of state of the nation, performance of the economy, governance, corruption, law and order, and other contemporary issues of national interest, and priority expectation from current government going forward.

 
Demographic

Demographic Profile of all earners: Age, gender, education level, occupation of CWE, primary and secondary sources of income, unemployment by duration and profile of unemployed, etc.

 

Analysis Outputs

Some of the outputs envisaged from this survey and which are of interest for policy makers have been outlined below. These are by no means comprehensive and it is expected that far more data views will emerge with time.

 

Standard of Living and citizen’s report card

  1. Rating of Indian states by their ability to provide its resident population with access to basic amenities at the household level.

  2. Citizen’s report card on ‘State of the Nation’ and ‘Quality of Life’ based on perceived changes over last 3 years across critical outcomes viz. governance, law and order, economy, cost of living, women’s safety, environment and corruption.

  3. Estimate and profile of India’s low income households which remain vulnerable to exploitation as they resort to risky/distress migration (without job contracts) for livelihood.

  4. Whether investment in 2nd and 3rd order towns as growth magnets in last decade is reflected upon in any qualitative change in migration patterns in terms of destination points.

  5. Financial outlook of Indian households - how has their family’s financial situation has changed over the last 3 years and what they expect in the next 3.

 

Access of public goods and social welfare

  1. Extent of awareness of the Indian citizenry of the flagship welfare schemes of the present government and their reach among eligible populations.

  2. Opinion on quality of implementation of welfare schemes and perceived impact on vulnerable households and overall rural transformation.

  3. Estimate and profile of India’s households who remain food insecure and mapping of the volume of food insecurity by seasonality and geography.

  4. Effectiveness of the public distribution system in being able to meet the production-consumption gap and reduce dependency on open market purchase.

  5. Availability of LPG/piped gas, cable/dish connection, functional toilet, separate kitchen, drinking water purifier (any variety including candle/gravity filters).

  6. Source of drinking water and distance from home, including year round availability.

  7. Availability of electricity at home and average hours of supply during night.

  8. Distance from residence to key infrastructure, viz. nearest  all weather road (AWR), nearest hospital, current place of work, fair price shop, district collectorate, district court, nearest college and nearest bus stand.

  9. Measuring household access to infrastructure index based on differential access to tap water within premises, LPG connection, electricity connection, toilet within premises, separate kitchen and presence of AWR within locality.

 

Social and financial inclusion

  1. Demand and supply side issues that influence political exclusion – through an understanding of people’s inability to exercise their franchise during the last general elections, and their apathy with the electoral process.

  2. Sizing our unemployment problem (by education of unemployed) and estimating total value of productive output lost due to unemployment.

  3. Measuring digital connectivity by looking at penetration of smart phones and ability to use value added services (VAS); whether having used the internet (from own phone, PC or shared facility)to perform any online transaction or information download; and whether having an account in social media sites and extent of activity.

  4. Measuring social inclusion of Indian households on the basis of membership in any trade association or professional body; affiliation to any self help group/thrift and credit group; affiliation to any registered social or religious body; level of affinity with locality and feeling of security within neighbourhood; and availability of proof of citizenry, of local residence.

  5. Measuring the proportion of India’s households who have experienced some form of discrimination (economic or social) at home or workplace.

  6. Ranking of Indian states based on composite social inclusion index.

  7. Measuring financial inclusion of households using following indicators:

    • Availability of bank account in his/her name.

    • Proof of local residence via a identity proof issued by government of India or its representative offices.

    • Ownership of credit card issued by a nationalized bank.

    • Whether currently servicing a loan taken through a Whether Chief Wage Earner (CWE) is currently servicing a loan which he/she has taken himself/herself.

    • Proof of employment and wage payment.

    • Access to collateral that can be pledged against credit, including ownership of any real estate with documentary evidence of ownership, investments in term deposits in banks/POs, and in securities and life insurance endowment plans; ownership of gold over and above what on worn on regular basis.

    • Extent of awareness that some forms of investments and family gold can be leveraged for accessing formal loans and attitude towards the same.

  8. Estimate and profile of India’s earning population who remain ineligible for financial inclusion because of not having a bank account, or their inability to produce the necessary documentation as proof of earning, employment or local residence, or lack of legal ownership of physical or financial collateral.

  9. Potential of the underserved population – size of the potential savings pie comprising households belonging to the bottom two income quintiles, and what best way to reach out to this untapped market.

  10. Total volume of business opportunity lost by bankers in providing credit to bank account holders who sourced loans from informal sources.

  11. Ranking of Indian states based on a financial inclusion index.

 

Debt, financial behaviour and retirement

  1. Estimate and profile of Indian earners who are vulnerable to income instability.

  2. Estimate and profile Indian households who are consuming more than what they are earning and those who have discretionary savings after meeting all committed expenditure.

  3. Expenditure of healthcare during the last fiscal year (In-patient department and out-patient department) and proportion that had insurance coverage.

  4. Estimate and profile of Indian households with outstanding debt and the proportion among those who are likely to be able to repay outstanding debt based on current earnings and savings potential and highly expensive debt servicing costs on outstanding.

  5. Proportion of households servicing inherited debt and purpose of borrowing and nature of debt servicing (proxy measure of bonded labour).

  6. Estimate and profile of Indian households who have mortgaged collateral against outstanding debt and are at high risk of default and forfeiture owing to their low income.

  7. Cross market savings and investment portfolios of Indian households and an estimation of penetration of different financial services.

  8. Relative positions of savings flows into different instruments.

  9. Nature of long and short term savings motivations of earners and whether current investment choices likely to yield sufficient returns to meet their needs.

  10. Proportion of Indian earners with discretionary savings who remain unaware of capital markets linked investment instruments or have yet to participate.

  11. Estimate and profile of the Indian working population that have no intention or means of retiring at 60.

  12. What proportion of India’s earners are planning for retirement and the appropriateness of measures being taken by them to ensure old age financial security.

  13. How confident are Indians about their financial security after retirement, including their expectations from their children.

 

Understanding occupation structures and labour market participation

  1. Sizing India’s informal sector employment and the share of its output in the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

  2. Carrying capacity of agriculture – are traditional agrarian households increasingly engaging in non-farm activities as a survival mechanism.

  3. Estimate and profile of disguised unemployment in India, especially in the agriculture sector.

  4. Estimate and profile of India’s formal and informal sector workforce  based on social security coverage, availability of job contracts, and workplace benefits including paid leave.

  5. The extent of labour rights violations at the workplace that take place in the informal sector.

  6. Creation of a labour market inclusion index based on based on size of holdings (for cultivators), extent of specialization required to perform the economic activity (for self employed); grade of employment + extent of availability of job contract, paid leave, social security (for those earning salaries or wages); and based on availability of job contract and/or paid leave (for casual labour).

  7. For all CWEs we have included a question on number of days in the past 12 months have they got employment with full wages  with those having gotten less than 183 days of full employment as being excluded from the labour market, and those who did get above the threshold but worked without and benefits and contracts at the lowest level of inclusion.

 

Income, consumption and discretionary savings

  1. Primary and secondary sources of income for entire household will be captured. This will include income from both earned and unearned sources.

  2. We will link income sources linked to occupation classifications for future disaggregated analysis. 17 income sources have been scripted.

  3. Under household consumption expenditure, we will be categorising food items on the basis of frequency of purchase, viz.

    • Cereals and pulses (including rice, wheat/flour, other cereals, pulses and pulse products).

    • Non-cereal food items (including milk and milk products, fruits and vegetables, meat, fish and eggs).

    • Other food items (including sugar, salt, spices, edible oils, beverages for home consumption, other occasional food items including packaged foods, alcohol and tobacco).

  4. For consumer services, the itemised budget heads will include education expenses, outpatient health expenditure, premium for health insurance, telephone bill, electricity and water charges, society maintenance, (charge/salary payment for domestic help/driver/sweeper, etc.), general entertainment (including cost of newsprint, cable/dish, dining out and entertainment), and other services.

  5. For non-food items, we will include house rent or regularised repayment on mortgage, any regular debt servicing, expenditure of fuel, commuting to work, clothing and footwear, any financial investments, remittances, etc.

  6. All non-routine/unusually large expenditure during the year, including purchase of consumer durable, any vehicle, any real estate (down payment), upgrades and repairing, one-time payment made as an investment into a financial instrument, social, down payment linked to education of children, hospitalisation expenses (all In-patient department charges) and transport charges due to a medical emergency/medical procedure, expenses incurred for undertaking a holiday, and investment in gold/other precious metals.

  7. Households with balance savings after deducting all expenditures from income.

 

Demographic details of Indian households

  1. For each adult member (15 or more) in the household, we will capture age in completed years, gender, marital status, highest completed level of education, whether currently attending school (only for 5 – 18 year olds), principal activity status, regularity of participation in any work that generates income for your family, whether adult members who are engaged in work receive any income for themselves for the work that they do

  2. The outputs that can be expected from this segment include the following:

    • Dependency ratios of different family structures and economic positions.

    • Trends in single, double and more than double earner households across geographic clusters.

    • Relationship between number of earners and aggregate household income and per capita income (PCI). The hypothesis is that beyond a point, increasing number of earners in a family is a sign of distress and indicates a survival tactic which leads to nominal increase in household income and a sharp decline in PCI.

    • Work force participation rate (WFPR) (in real earner terms) by gender.
      Incidence of child labour as well as people engaged in economically gainful work post retirement. Incidence of disguised unemployment in the economy (specifically in the farm sector) in the context of feminization of agriculture.

 

Form of outputs

It is planned that the major output will be in several forms, viz.

  1. A mother report titled "India's Consumer Economy and Citizens' Environment, 2016" which will be made available as an off-the-shelf product

  2. The database will be embedded within a proprietary query based data mining software (Pathfinder) and made available to users online (including an online tutorial) on a time based usage fee with unlimited download of outputs

  3. Working papers on Index formulation and panel based indices, as well as business and policy briefs and specific thematic reports will also be part of the outputs on a regular basis and will be available as off-the shelf products

  4. Given an open platform concept, publications in leading journals and other publications will also happen as a matter of course with the engaged team members and collaborators bringing out specific theme papers and articles in topics of relevance.

  5. Policy advocacy as well as advisory basis the ICE 360o survey is also a feasible output that shall be consciously adopted, and may be tied with conferences and workshops as well as presentations to stakeholders and target audiences relevant to policy.

  6. Further, the in-house analytics team will be on hand to service any request for in-depth analysis of a specific topic. This can be in the form of tables as well as customized reports.

 

Survey Features and Allocation

Feature ICE 360° Survey, 2014 ICE 360° Survey, 2016
Survey type Cross section Best mix of Baseline-Panel-Longitudinal and Cross-sectional
Sample design

Three-stage stratified random sampling

Rural: District - Villages -  Households

Urban: Towns - UFS blocks - Households 

Same as ICE 360° Survey, 2014
Coverage 21 Indian states 25 Indian states
Unit of selection and data collection Households

Households

Sampling frame 1,01,534 households 300,000 households
Sample size 20,195 households 61,000 (20,000 panel)
Method of data collection Face-to-face interview  Face-to-face interview and focus groups
Respondents Chief Wage Earner (CWE) 

Chief Wage Earner (CWE), House wife, Youth

Collection of primary data  September-November, 2014

Listing of households (November 2015-January 2016);

Main survey (March-August 2016)

 

Sample Summary

Location Sampling Units ICE 360° Survey, 2014 ICE 360° Survey, 2016
Rural 

 

 

  
Districts  72  165

Villages

300 1,217
Sampling Frame - Households 30,048  120,000 
Main Survey - Households 5,997  25,000 
Urban    Towns 81  487
Urban blocks 710  1,801 
Sampling Frame - Households 71,486  1,80,000 
Main Survey - Households 14,198  36,000 
All India    Districts/Towns 110  216 
Villages/Urban blocks 1,010  3,018
Sampling Frame - Households 101,534  300,000 
Main Survey - Households 20,195  61,000 
 

Representativeness of sample and analysis on the national macro-economic scenario: 

The data will be weighted to allow reporting at the following levels of disaggregation:

  • State-wise, rural/urban, independent estimates for 25 clusters (group of homogeneous districts) separately for rural & urban

  • Independent estimates for over 50 major cities.

  • Independent estimates by 5 sizes of town categories within each state.

  • Independent estimates by size of villages within each state and clusters.

  • Many more…..
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